Un envio del blog

Modelo social dominicano

Enviado en 19 enero, 2008 Para 3:00 pm Escrito por en Artículos de opinión

Uno de los grandes desafíos que tenemos como país es la capacidad de implementar políticas públicas que disminuyan la creciente brecha social que ha sido generada por la falta de ejecución de un plan nacional de desarrollo. Definitivamente, la ausencia de planes a largo plazo en educación, salud, energía eléctrica, empleos, seguridad ciudadana, alimentación y vivienda han provocado que, cada cuatro años, con el cambio de gobierno, no pasemos del primer piso en las reformas urgentes que requiere el país.

Si a lo anterior, le añadimos la ausencia de respeto por las normas y disposiciones constitucionales y legales, y la falta de seguridad jurídica en la función pública, entre otras características del deterioro institucional, la situación de nuestro país no es halagüeña para el próximo Presidente.

Las políticas actuales de desarrollo social no pueden continuar siendo excluyentes, ocasionando que millones de dominicanos sigan viviendo en la marginalidad, sin beneficiarse de las oportunidades que debe ofrecer el mundo globalizado. Para ello, a partir de las elecciones de mayo de 2008, debe iniciarse el compromiso político de encausar las políticas públicas a mediano y a largo plazo para ofrecer un marco constitucional y legal que sea la plataforma de un modelo social que procure la inclusión social y la igualdad de oportunidades.

Recientemente, estuvo en el país el reconocido economista y sociólogo sueco, Joakim Palme, quien dictó, por invitación de la PUCMM y de la Fundación e-Libertad, una Conferencia titulada “Un Estado de Bienestar Sostenible: La Experiencia Nórdica”, en la cual estableció las bases que han generado el éxito del modelo nórdico europeo que ha permitido que Suecia, Finlandia, Dinamarca y Noruega sean ejemplos de Estados eficientes

A juicio de Palme, “para comprender qué hace que un Estado sea sustentable, debemos examinar los principios fundamentales de la seguridad social y del Estado benefactor. Esas son dos dimensiones diferentes. La sustentabilidad implica que el Estado benefactor tiene que alcanzar sus metas sociales para asegurar la estabilidad social y la legitimidad de su existencia futura, porque los principios en los cuales se sustenta el Estado benefactor deben generar apoyo político, que es un elemento crítico para mantener la sustentabilidad política del programa. Pero no basta con esto y hay que preocuparse de la sustentabilidad económica, que tiene que ver básicamente con aumentar el número de contribuyentes para los programas de seguridad social”.

Guardando todas las distancias que nos diferencia del modelo nórdico, y de otros modelos europeos, como el conservador o corporativista, el liberal o inglés, o el mediterráneo, lo cierto es que estos modelos sociales se han desarrollado por haber contado con una clase política madura, por haber establecido instituciones fuertes y transparentes, y por ser regímenes democráticos, puestos a toda prueba.

El debate que hoy estamos viendo que existe sobre la seguridad social en nuestro país es una consecuencia de la ausencia justamente de institucionalidad, con una visión excluyente. A partir del nuevo período constitucional, gobierno y oposición deben pactar las bases del nuevo modelo social dominicano, fundamentado en la inclusión social y en la igualdad de oportunidades.

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